what is greenhouse gases?
Greenhouse gases are a group of gases in the Earth’s atmosphere that trap heat and cause the greenhouse effect, which is the warming of the planet’s surface. The most common greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases. These gases are produced by natural processes and human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture. The buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is causing global temperatures to rise, leading to a range of impacts including melting glaciers and sea level rise, more intense heatwaves, droughts, and extreme weather events.
What standard used to study GHG inventory level organization
The ISO 14064 standard is used to study and report greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals at the organizational level. ISO 14064 consists of three parts:
- ISO 14064-1: Specifies the principles and requirements at the organizational level for quantification and reporting of GHG emissions and removals.
- ISO 14064-2: Specifies the requirements for the validation and verification of GHG assertions.
- ISO 14064-3: Specifies the requirements for the validation and verification of GHG inventories and projects.
The ISO 14064 standard provides a framework for organizations to consistently and transparently quantify and report their GHG emissions and removals, and to have their GHG information validated or verified by an independent third party. By following ISO 14064, organizations can demonstrate their commitment to reducing GHG emissions and contribute to the global effort to mitigate climate change.
what are main contents of ISO 14064-1:2018?
ISO 14064-1:2018 is the first part of the ISO 14064 series of standards for greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting and reporting at the organizational level. The main contents of ISO 14064-1:2018 include:
- Principles and requirements: The standard outlines the principles and requirements for quantifying and reporting GHG emissions and removals at the organizational level, including the choice of GHG inventories, data sources, and calculation methodologies.
- Scope and boundary definition: The standard defines the scope of the GHG inventory and the boundary conditions for the quantification and reporting of GHG emissions and removals.
- Quantification and reporting: The standard provides guidance on how to quantify and report GHG emissions and removals, including the calculation of emissions, the selection of data sources, and the preparation of reports.
- Assurance: The standard outlines the requirements for independent assurance of GHG inventory reports and sets out the requirements for assurance providers.
- Review and improvement: The standard provides guidance on how to review and improve GHG inventories and reporting over time.
ISO 14064-1:2018 is intended to provide a consistent and transparent framework for organizations to quantify and report their GHG emissions and removals and to have their GHG information validated or verified by an independent third party. By following ISO 14064-1:2018, organizations can demonstrate their commitment to reducing GHG emissions and contribute to the global effort to mitigate climate change.
how to conduct GHG inventory follow iso 14064-1:2018?
To conduct a GHG inventory following ISO 14064-1:2018, you need to follow these steps:
- Define the scope of the GHG inventory: Determine which GHG sources and activities are included in the inventory and which are excluded.
- Develop a GHG inventory boundary: Identify the boundary of the GHG inventory, including the geographic boundary, the temporal boundary, and the functional boundary.
- Collect data: Collect data on GHG emissions and removals from each of the sources and activities within the inventory boundary.
- Assess data quality: Evaluate the quality of the data collected to ensure it is accurate and relevant to the inventory.
- Quantify GHG emissions and removals: Use appropriate methodologies to quantify GHG emissions and removals from each source and activity.
- Allocate emissions and removals: Allocate GHG emissions and removals to the appropriate organizational unit.
- Calculate the GHG inventory: Sum the GHG emissions and removals from all sources and activities to determine the total GHG inventory.
- Report the GHG inventory: Report the GHG inventory using appropriate reporting formats and in accordance with ISO 14064-1:2018 requirements.
- Review and improve: Continuously review and improve the GHG inventory process to ensure it is accurate, consistent, and transparent.
Note: It’s advisable to engage a GHG inventory specialist or a certification body to ensure the inventory follows the requirements of ISO 14064-1:2018 and to achieve credible and verifiable results.
example of Define the scope of the GHG inventory?
Defining the scope of a GHG inventory involves identifying the boundaries of the inventory, including which activities, processes, products, and/or facilities will be included in the inventory, and which will be excluded. The following are some examples of what might be included or excluded when defining the scope of a GHG inventory:
- Direct emissions from energy consumption in company-owned facilities and vehicles
- Indirect emissions from electricity consumption
- Emissions from procurement of goods and services
- Emissions from employee commuting and business travel
- Emissions from decommissioned facilities or discontinued product lines
- Emissions from waste management activities not directly controlled by the company
It is important to clearly define the scope of the GHG inventory so that it is accurate and consistent, and stakeholders can have confidence in the information being reported.
example of Quantify GHG emissions and removals
Quantifying GHG emissions and removals involves calculating the amounts of each gas emitted or removed as a result of specific activities, processes, products, and/or facilities within the defined scope of the GHG inventory. This can be done using a variety of methods, including direct measurement, activity data, and emissions factors. Here are a few examples:
- Direct measurement: This involves using equipment to directly measure the emissions from a specific source, such as a fuel combustion stack or a wastewater treatment plant.
- Activity data: This involves using data on activities, such as fuel consumption or production volume, to estimate emissions. For example, emissions from transportation can be estimated by multiplying fuel consumption by an emissions factor.
- Emissions factors: This involves using emissions factors, which are numerical values representing the average emissions per unit of activity, to estimate emissions. For example, emissions from energy consumption can be estimated by multiplying energy consumption by an emissions factor for each fuel type.
It is important to use the most accurate and appropriate methods for quantifying GHG emissions and removals, and to document the methods used and any assumptions made, in order to ensure that the results are reliable and trustworthy.
sample of Calculate the GHG inventory
To calculate a GHG inventory, you need to gather data on your organization’s activities that emit or remove greenhouse gases. This includes sources such as energy use, transportation, industrial processes, waste management, and land use changes. Then, using relevant methodologies and calculation tools, you can estimate the total amount of GHG emissions and removals for each category of activities.
Here is a simple example of calculating GHG emissions from energy use:
- Determine the source of energy used by the organization, such as natural gas, electricity, and fuels.
- Obtain the emissions factors for each source of energy, which are usually provided by the relevant authorities or available in publicly accessible databases.
- Calculate the total GHG emissions by multiplying the emissions factors by the energy consumption data. For example, if the organization used 10,000 kWh of electricity, and the emissions factor for electricity is 0.5 kg CO2e/kWh, then the GHG emissions from electricity would be: 10,000 x 0.5 = 5,000 kg CO2e.
- Repeat this calculation for all sources of energy used by the organization.
- Add up the GHG emissions from all sources to get the total GHG emissions from energy use.
This is just a simple example, and the actual calculation process may be more complex, depending on the scope and complexity of the GHG inventory. It is important to use relevant methodologies, data, and tools to ensure the accuracy and consistency of the GHG inventory.
sample of Emissions factors
Emissions factors are used in GHG inventory calculations to estimate the amount of emissions or removals of a certain GHG caused by a specific activity or process. For example, the emissions factor for CO2 emissions from the combustion of coal can be used to calculate the CO2 emissions from a coal-fired power plant.
A sample emissions factor for CO2 emissions from the combustion of coal:
- CO2 emissions factor (kg CO2 per unit of energy produced) = 0.955 kg CO2/kWh
The emissions factor can be used to estimate the CO2 emissions from the coal-fired power plant by multiplying the emissions factor by the amount of energy produced by the plant:
- CO2 emissions (kg) = Emissions factor (kg CO2 per unit of energy produced) * Energy produced (kWh)
- CO2 emissions (kg) = 0.955 kg CO2/kWh * 100,000 kWh = 95,500 kg CO2
where to find Emissions factors?
Emissions factors can be found in various sources, including:
- Government agencies: National or local governments may provide emissions factors for specific industries, regions, or countries.
- Industry associations: Trade organizations may provide emissions factors for their specific industries.
- Research reports: Emissions factors can be found in academic and industry research reports, which may be published in journals or available online.
- GHG protocols: International GHG protocols, such as the GHG Protocol, often provide default emissions factors for various sectors and activities.
- Emissions databases: There are several online databases that provide emissions factors, such as the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) and the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR).
It is important to use relevant and up-to-date emissions factors, which are specific to the geographical location and conditions of the operations being studied.